Gao Tianming & Vasilii Erokhin
The livelihoods and prosperity of Indigenous Peoples substantially depend on the quality of local ecosystems and biodiversity. Indigenous communities are particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of climate change. At the same time, Indigenous Peoples have extensive historical knowledge about the possibilities of responsible and environmentally friendly use of local resources, which allows them not only live in severe conditions, but also adapt to climate change. However, as the changes in the way of living have accelerated under the influence of progressing economic exploration and development of the Arctic, the adaption is becoming increasingly harder. Establishing food security is exacerbated by the cross-influence of climatic, environmental, economic, social, and cultural transformations that Indigenous communities are experiencing. In the cases of nine territories in the Russian Arctic, the chapter conceptualizes an approach to assessing the level of food and nutritional security with the differentiation of environmental, economic, and social factors that affect the security-related parameters in Indigenous communities. The authors make recommendations on how to improve food security of Indigenous Peoples, mitigate adverse effects of food insecurity on public health, boost self-sufficiency in food, and promote the use of traditional foods and related products in diets.