This article argues for an “existence and survival” dimension of the self-determination of Indigenous Peoples. This dimension is supported by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as well as international and regional human rights law. This article proposes that such an existence and survival dimension should be expressly delineated in the context of climate change impacts. This article then analyses threats to the existence and survival of Arctic Indigenous People posed by climate change impacts as alleged before a variety of international legal fora. The article concludes by discussing possible legal consequences on States for breaches of the existence and survival dimension of self-determination with respect to Arctic Indigenous Peoples.