Alexey A. Dudarev & Alexey V. Dozhdikov
The present review evaluates, summarizes and comparatively analyzes the information for the period 2000-2019 on living conditions and environmental factors in urban and rural settlements of the Nenets autonomous okrug (NAO) in relation to the assessment of demographic processes, well-being (quality of life) and health of the NAO population. This review was prepared using the information accessible in the open sources, primarily the official Rosstat data. The analysis clearly demonstrates that the living conditions in the rural NAO areas are characterized by transport isolation, irregular supply of foods and essential goods, outdated housing and social infrastructure, lack of centralized heating, water supply, sewerage, waste collection and disposal, limited access of the population to medical care, lack of adequate opportunities for education, children's creativity, cultural development, leisure activities, and sports. The living conditions and sanitary-epidemiological situation in the rural NAO settlements (especially in the remote and hard-to-reach villages) should be characterized as unfavourable. The demographic situation in NAO has obvious signs of the formation of a pronounced depopulation trend both among the urban and rural population. The situation among the rural population is alarming: high mortality rates (so far compensated by the high birth rates) accompanied by even higher migration loss, are obviously leading to the further (perhaps irreversible) reduction in the “inhabitability” of the rural NAO areas. Poor demographic situation in the rural NAO areas is accompanied by the increased public health risks (high rates of morbidity).