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Arctic Yearbook 2012
In addition to aiming to protect the environment Canada and Norway seek to demonstrate
“stewardship” of the environment. The Kingdom of Denmark underlines that the Arctic
nature must be managed based on the best (possible) scientific knowledge and standards for
protection. Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden also mention “environmental technology”,
and the Kingdom of Denmark refers to green technology in the context of energy.
Safety, Search and Rescue, and Management
Safety, and search and rescue, is substantially discussed and also emphasized in the Arctic
strategies, not least due to the recent legally-binding Search and Rescue agreement under the
auspices of the AC. Canada’s vision for the Arctic is a stable region with undisputed
sovereignty, clearly defined boundaries and maritime safety. The last one is crucial in remote,
isolated and coastal communities and requests “expanding and modernizing the Canadian
rangers … for assisting with search and rescue” (Government of Canada, 2009: 10). The
Canadian strategy also seeks to improve Northern governance. The Kingdom of Denmark’s
view is to ensure the Arctic as “[A] peaceful, secure and safe” region characterized by “close
cooperation with our international partners” (Kingdom of Denmark Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, 2011: 11). An important part of this aim is maritime safety which is mentioned as a
“fundamental priority” (ibid: 13). The strategy also makes a linkage between the importance
of security and protecting the economic base of Greenland’s economy. Correspondingly,
Finland defines increasing sea transport currently as “the biggest threat to Arctic marine
ecosystems” and states that the “regulations concerning the safety of shipping” are “badly
inadequate” (Prime Minister’s Office, 2010: 28).
The Icelandic Resolution states that for Iceland it is important to “take full part in
cooperation on Arctic fisheries management” for to protect “straddling fish stocks and
highly migratory fish stocks” (Althingi, 2011: 9) as well as to strengthen cooperation with
other countries on preparedness and response measures against maritime accidents and
environmental emergencies (Utanrikisraduneytid, 2009: 28-29). The Norwegian strategy
discusses safety and security in several contexts and levels. For Norway, the security policy
situation in the Arctic region is complex with a broad range of different risk factors, such as
climate change having “an impact on the security of countries and people” (Norwegian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2006: 14), and that energy is included as a facet of security
policy. Therefore strengthening the cooperation with Russia is needed to increase stability in