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Arctic Yearbook 2012
shipping, aviation and tourism), the utilization of natural resources (e.g. exploitation of
mineral resources and renewable sources) and know-how, knowledge and education related
to economic development; 3) third, sustainable and regional development including
sustainable use of resources as well as that of renewable energy resources, and regional
economic development and improvement of regional infrastructure; 4) fourth,
environmental protection and climate change including preserving environmental heritage,
impacts of climate change, knowledge about the environment and climate change, and
international cooperation for environmental protection and on climate change; 5) fifth,
safety, search and rescue, and management including on one hand, concern and measures for
management of resources, establishing rules for development, and improving Northern
governance, and on the other hand, maritime safety and preparedness, response and rescue
measures in the case of air or maritime accidents; 6) sixth, human dimension and peoples
including inhabitants of the Arctic region, particularly indigenous peoples and their cultures
and livelihoods as well as promotion of human health; 7) seventh, research and knowledge
including research, science, monitoring, technology and know-how as well as higher
education and knowledge in general, and international cooperation on research, monitoring
and higher education; and 8) eighth, international cooperation including international -
global, multilateral, regional and bilateral - cooperation in general, and particularly
cooperation within IGOs and IGOs with regional/sub-regional approaches as well as
bilateral cooperation.
There is, however, one more interesting indicator, which I would like to first discuss, i.e.
how each Arctic state (re)positions and (re)defines itself as an Arctic country/nation, and
how they (re)map the Arctic region.
(Re)constructing, (Re)defining, and (Re)mapping
The modern Arctic strategies and state policies show a growing need and interest of each of
the Arctic states to, on one hand, (re)position and (re)define themselves as an Arctic country
or nation as well as to (re)construct its internal and foreign policies dealing with Arctic or
northern affairs. On the other hand, they also show that there is an interest, even a need, to
redefine and remap the Arctic region.