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Arctic Yearbook 2012
New Directions for Governance in the Arctic Region
The Nordic Defence Cooperation, or NORDEFCO, builds on existing collective security
arrangements in the Nordic area, but with a view to broadening and deepening existing
cooperation with a defense pact. It began as an initiative among the Norwegian, Swedish and
Finnish Chiefs of Defence, with a report submitted in June 2008 outlining potential areas for
cooperation and harmonization, and expanded in November 2008 when Iceland and Denmark
joined the arrangement and the Defence Ministers of the five Nordic countries signed a
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) regarding the enhanced Nordic cooperation in Nordic
Supportive Defense Structures.
See the United Nations Regional Seas Programme (UNRSP) website,
See for example Mark Nuttall. (1998).
Protecting the Arctic: Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Survival
Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
See Lassi Heininen,
Arctic Strategies and Policies: Inventory and Comparisons
(2011). Akureyri, Iceland:
Northern Research Forum; and also his article in this volume, for an overview of the strategies.
The Arctic Council
the actual strategies at http://www.arctic-
The Arctic Council has no authority to make or enforce legislation, so technically the SAR
Agreement is not an Arctic Council instrument. However the Agreement was mandated at (or
by?) the Arctic Council Minsters in 2009, developed by an Arctic Council task force, and signed
by all eight Arctic states at the 2011 Arctic Council Ministerial meeting.
See International Maritime Organization (IMO) website for details and text of the OPRC:
This assessment is based particularly on discussions held during the April 2009 Senior Arctic
Officials (SAO) meeting.