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Arctic Yearbook 2012
Watters and Tonami
Communication between Singapore’s Arctic Envoy, Ambassador Siddique, and the authors.
Singapore is currently the world’s second largest container port and was only overtaken as the
world’s leading port by Shanghai in the past few years.
Interviews with diplomatic and civil society personnel familiar with Singapore’s activities at the
Arctic Council.
Communication between Singapore’s Arctic Envoy, Ambassador Siddique, and the authors.
Singapore was granted full internal self-government by the British in 1959. Singapore became
fully independent in 1965.
PSA International is 100% owned by Temasek Holdings
Temasek Holdings is wholly owned by the Singapore Ministry of Finance
PSA International manages a number of terminals in the ports where trans-Arctic shipments are
predicted to arrive in Northeast Asia, including a total of 29 berths across Dalian, Tianjin,
Busan and Incheon, with a total capacity of 14,350 kTEU
(PSA International, 2012)
that is far
beyond predictions for volumes of trans-Arctic shipment through to mid-century (Peters et al.,
2011: 5314).
For more on ‘hedging’ and Singapore’s general foreign policy stance, see
Kuik (2008)
A jack-up rig is a “self-contained combination drilling rig and floating barge, fitted with long
support legs that can be raised or lowered independently of each other.” See Schlumberger,
Temasek Holdings, whose sole shareholder is the Singapore Ministry of Finance (Temasek,
2012), owns 20.74% of Keppel Corporation
(Keppel Corporation, 2012)
and 60.91% of
Sembcorp Marine
(Holmes, 2012)
Airriess, C. A. (2001). Regional production, information-communication technology, and the
developmental state: the rise of Singapore as a global container hub.
32(2), 235-
Dent, C. M. (2001). Singapore's Foreign Economic Policy: The Pursuit of Economic Security.
Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International & Strategic Affairs, 23
(1), 1-23.Elias, R.
(2008). Lessons from the Arctic.
Singapore Nautilus
. 5(4Q), 19-20.
Graham, E. (2012).
Short way round: Strategic Impacts for East Asia from the NSR, and implications for
Singapore as a global shipping hub.
Paper presented at the Energy Security and Geopolitics in the
Arctic, Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore.
Hean, T. C. (2012).
Speech by Mr Teo Chee Hean, Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore, Coordinating Minister
for National Security and Minister for Home Affairs.
Paper presented at the World Oceans
Summit, Singapore.