Arctic Yearbook 2012
Thawing Ice and French Foreign Policy: A Preliminary Assessment
Usage to delay the gas field development. Other reports suggest that work on the
Shtokman gas field could start as early as 2017. See Interfax, 2012.
A map of all activities is available online at Total. Our Energies,
Analysts point out that “France’s demand for gas has significantly increased in recent
years, doubling its share (in Norway) between 1990 and 2004.” See Major, C. &
Steinicke, S. (2011): 6.
Top suppliers of France are the Netherlands (8.9%), the United Kingdom (8.7%),
Denmark (8.6%), Spain (7.2%) and Belgium (7.1%).
The Commission states that the “EU is among the most important consumers of
Arctic fish, of which only a small part is caught by Community vessels. The
European Community is a member of the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission
(NEAFC). It cooperates fully with states with sovereignty or jurisdiction in the
Arctic waters, seeking not only to ensure fishing opportunities, but also to guarantee
long-term conservation and optimum utilization of fishery resources.” See EU
See Norwegian Armed Forces (2012). Cold Response 2012. Retrieved (06.18.12)
(2012, May 30). French Frigate De Grasse to call at Severomorsk.
See Institut de recherche stratégique de l’École militaire (IRSEM),
Even though the report’s title indicates a case study on the Antarctic, part VI of
Gaudin’s 2007 report is dedicated to France’s role in the Arctic (Gaudin, 2007: 93-
The six working groups are: Arctic Council Action Plan (ACAP); Arctic Monitoring
and Assessment Program (AMAP); Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF);
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME); Emergency, Prevention,
Preparedness and Responses (EPPR); and Sustainable Development Working Group
The Senate adopted the
Grenelle de l’Environnement
in 2009. It is specifically stated that
the Senate adopted Sentor Gaudin’s recommendations on the creation of scientific
observatory for the Arctic and to promote a proper legal framework to regulate
human economic activities in the Arctic. See Senat (Melquiot, 2009).
Le Cercle Polaire
, www.lecerclepolaire.com. Discussions on an Arctic Treaty are
not new. In 1991, University of Ottawa, Canada, Professor Emeritus of International
Law, Donat Pharand, drafted such a treaty where he “emphasized the idea of an
Arctic Region Council aiming at region cooperation which should lead to the use of
the Arctic Region for peaceful purposes”. From Rasmussen, O.R. (Publication date
unknown). Viewpoint: Time for an Arctic Treaty!
. Retrieved (08.15.12)