Arctic Yearbook 2012
example in relation to employment opportunities. Thus, the movement of the Arctic environment
from low to high politics is driven by two interrelated developments. One is that negotiations on
international environmental agreements increasingly focus on issues of national interest. The other is
the importance of the Arctic region in the global race for increasingly scarce resources.
What are the consequences for Arctic environmental politics? Given present trends and that the
Arctic Council tends to seek consensus, contentious issues are likely to be pushed to fora outside the
circumpolar cooperation, either at the global or national level. The greatest potential for cooperation
might be in areas that support economic development where environmental and economic concerns
are perceived as going hand-in-hand. The years ahead may come to embody a compromise of
sustainable development where the role of the environment for longer-term sustainability is lost.
Ottawa Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council (1996): “The Arctic Council
is established as a high-level forum to: a) provide a means for promoting cooperation,
coordination and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic
indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular
issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.”
The Arctic Human Development Report
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Arctic Pollution issues 2002.
Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
Arctic Pollution 2009
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Andrews-Speed, P., Bleischewitz, R., Borsma, T., Johnson, C., Kemp, G., & VanDeveer, S. D.
(2012). The Global Resource Nexus. The Struggles for Land, Energy, Food, Water, and
Minerals. Washington DC: Transatlantic Academy. Retrieved (6.9.12) from,
Archer, C., & Scrivener, D. (2000). International Co-operation in the Arctic Environment. In M.
Nuttall & T.V. Callaghan (Eds.),
The Arctic. Environment, People, Policy
Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Arctic Council (2009).
Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report
. Retreived (6.8.12) from,
Arctic Council (1996). Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council (Ottawa
Declaration) (1996). Retrieved (6.8.12) from, http://www.arctic-
Arctic Ocean Conference. (2008). The Ilulissat Declaration Arctic Ocean Conference, Ilulissat